East Africa, approximately 4º S, 55º E
Points of Interest
Carrion Cove, Ridgeback Mountains, Prenova Province, Crescent Bay Beach, Krölik Foothills, Fenyick Caves, Enmann Beach
Hammer Bay (capital city)
Uncanny X-Men #235 (1988)
A small island nation located north of the Seychelles off the east coast of Africa, Genosha was once known as “a green and pleasant land” for its high standard of living, an excellent economy led by advanced technology companies, freedom from the political and racial turmoil that characterized neighboring nations, and ample food and space for all. However, this apparent utopia was anything but, as Genosha’s entire socio-political economic infrastructure was built on the backs of its mutant population. Genoshan citizens were required to undergo genetic testing upon turning 13 years old, and those who tested positive with the mutant gene were, by law, property of the state. They were forced to undergo a process created by the reality-displaced Sugar-Man, based on the work of the evil geneticist Mister Sinister, and implemented by David Moreau, the original Genegineer. This process physically altered and psychokinetically conditioned them, stripping them of their free will to become servants of the state called Mutates. Tailored to perform a specific task, if a surplus was exhibited in one area of expertise, Mutates were modified to fit a new area. Locked inside skin-bonded suits, Mutates were easily identified by a unique number that was branded onto their forehead. Citizenship in Genosha was permanent, with the government refusing to recognize any attempts at emigration. Any citizens that did leave the country were tracked down and forcibly returned by a special police force called the Magistrates and their mutant specialist taskforce, the Press Gang. In one such attempt, pilot Madelyne Pryor had flown a group of Mutates off the island. Hunted down by the Press Gang, the Mutates and Pryor were captured, bringing them to the attention of the X-Men. Capturing X-Men members Wolverine and Rogue as well, the Press Gang teleported back to Genosha with their prisoners. Wolverine and Rogue escaped and encountered the Genegineer’s rebellious son Phillip, whose girlfriend Jenny Ransome had undergone the Mutate bonding process. The X-Men managed to rescue their teammates, and Phillip and Jenny went into exile.
After settling in New York, Phillip and Jenny were tracked by the Press Gang who sought to return them to Genosha. They were opposed first by the then-amnesiac X-Man Colossus, then by X-Factor. Diplomatic channels to secure Ransome’s return had also failed, and so Genoshan President Reneau sought to bring the X-Men to trial for their crimes against the state. To that end, the Magistrates attacked the X-Men’s base in Xavier’s school and captured Storm, as well as members of the New Mutants. After being processed as Mutates, the heroes learned that Cameron Hodge, a mutant-hating villain long believed dead, in alliance with the Genoshan government, had instigated the attack. The other X-Men and New Mutants teamed up with X-Factor to rescue their teammates, only to be opposed by the Magistrates, who counted amongst their number the X-Men’s former teammate Havok. Captured, the heroes underwent a mock trial, in which they were found guilty and sentenced to death. Managing to escape, the heroes regrouped and defeated Hodge, paving the way for a new pro-mutant government operating under sanctions imposed by the United Nations. When the Acolytes of Magneto set about killing humans on the streets of Genosha in the name of mutant supremacy, the X-Men returned to the island nation to oppose them. Soon after, a shipload of Genoshan refugees arrived in New York seeking asylum. Led by a Mutate named Prodigal, these "X-Patriots" were initially turned away due to the change in political climate in their country. The government-sponsored X-Factor team was called in to resolve the situation and escorted the refugees home, after one of their number was injured. There, they were introduced to the new President and the new Genegineer, Sasha Ryan, who had been charged with the task of reversing the Mutate process. When the mutant-killing Legacy Virus began to spread through the Mutate population, tensions between Mutates and humans rose, as infected Mutates were placed in quarantine. X-Factor sought to prevent the killing of one such infected Mutate, who had escaped and was being hunted by the Magistrates.
When an electromagnetic pulse swept the globe, signaling the return of Magneto, the human Genoshans panicked, fearing his return would incite the Mutates to rebel. The decision was made to eliminate the Mutates before this could happen, but the Mutates fought back under the leadership of Magneto’s deposed Acolyte leader Fabian Cortez. Cortez kidnapped Magneto’s grandchild Luna, daughter of the Avengers' Crystal, bringing them into the conflict. The U.S. Government elected to send Professor X, Jenny Ransome and Phillip Moreau to Genosha to try and negotiate a peaceful solution, but the entire Genoshan government was slain by the Mutate rebels and Cortez claimed the presidency for himself. The X-Men traveled to Genosha as well to stop Cortez, as Xavier rendezvoused with his old colleague, biogeneticist Renée Majcomb, leader of the Bipartisan Rebel Battalion, comprised of humans and Mutates who had banded together to stop the violence. The situation was exacerbated by the arrival of Magneto’s servitor Exodus, who sought to save the Mutates by slaughtering the humans. Ultimately, the heroes were able to band together, defeat Exodus, and quell the rebellion. An interim government of both humans and Mutates was formed, allowing both peoples to share the island.
However, with mutates now refusing to work without pay, the Genoshan economy collapsed, plunging the nation into civil war once more. Arriving in Genosha, the mutant soldier Cable and his mercenary ally Domino aided rebel leaders Jenny Ransome and Phillip Moreau in exposing the Sugar-Man, preventing him from destroying Genosha with a thermo-nuclear device, and putting an end to the Mutate bonding process. Later, Ransome and the Press Gang forcibly recruited the leader of the Fantastic Four, Reed Richards, to aid the Genoshan government in opposing the threat of Crucible and his servant, Ayesha. Mounting a rescue mission, the rest of the Fantastic Four were captured by Ayesha and taken to Crucible, who swapped their minds with three human Genoshans. After being caught up in the rebellion, the Four were reunited and, their powers restored, with the Genoshan Chief Magistrate Tam Anderson they opposed Crucible and Ayesha, who were pulled into a miniature singularity after Anderson used a Black Hole Grenade.
Following Magneto’s threatening the world with another electro-magnetic pulse, Doctor Alda Huxley, a Genoshan expert on mutant sociopolitics, presented the United Nations with an alternative to retaliating against Magneto. Huxley suggested they cede him sovereignty of Genosha, with certain security restrictions, believing that the island’s turmoil would keep him occupied enough so as to not pose a threat to the rest of the world. Magneto agreed and set about establishing his new rule. Upon hearing of Magneto’s arrival on the island, many humans fled, rather than live under his authority. Quickly assembling a new Cabinet, Magneto swiftly dealt with the threat posed by a fanatical band of Mutates led by Phillip Moreau’s brother Thomas. He also demanded that the United Nations honor his sovereignty, destroying their spy satellites and reconnaissance planes as a warning, and followed that up by announcing that he intended to close Genosha’s borders completely.
Magneto and his Cabinet began the rebuilding process, facing a range of problems including an imminent famine, the Legacy Virus, and a new resistance movement operating out of the small fishing port of Carrion Cove. Having learned that the rebels were guarding a device that could restore his flagging powers, Magneto devised a plan to claim it for himself. He sent Huxley to the United Nations to request that the sanctions against Genosha be lifted, to which they responded by sending the Scarlet Witch as an independent observer. When the Avengers became involved in the conflict, Magneto sought to distract them in order to attend to his true objective and so used his powers to tear Carrion Cove down. As the Avengers attended to the new crisis, Magneto located the device and used it to restore his damaged DNA. Empowered once more, Magneto began to consolidate his control. With the release of a cure for the Legacy Virus, Magneto found himself with a veritable army of Mutates and mutant immigrants with which to wage war on mankind. Seeking to rally his troops, Magneto captured Professor X and put him on public display in the center of the capital. The X-Men came to their founder’s rescue, and with the aid of a hastily-assembled novice team, Magneto was defeated.
Later, Xavier’s genetic twin Cassandra Nova was responsible for unleashing giant Sentinel robots against Genosha, which decimated the island and its population. Seeking to atone for the sins of his twin, Xavier left the X-Men to assist the survivors in rebuilding the nation. Joined by Magneto, Xavier gathered a small band of heroes to aid in the reconstruction and oppose such threats as Stripmine's scavengers and the Sugar-Man. The heroes also went to the aid of neighboring Zanzibar, which came under attack by the mercenary Weaponeers in an attempt by the Hellfire Club to destabilize the country. When the mutant Scarlet Witch reshaped reality, a restored Genosha became the capital of Magneto’s global mutant empire.